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== Linux Kernel ==
{{admon/note|Deprecated or out of date content?|This content may be deprecated or out of date, it has not been updated since the Fedora 9 release notes.}}
This section covers changes and important information regarding the {{Template:DocsDict/KernelVer}} based kernel in Fedora {{Template:DocsDict/BeatsVer}}.  The {{Template:DocsDict/KernelVer}} kernel includes:
[[Category:Docs Project]]
[[Category:Draft documentation]]
* Work on <code>paravirt_ops</code> in the upstream kernel has progressed sufficiently that <code>kernel-xen</code> has been obsoleted. For further details see [[Docs/Beats/Virtualization#Unified_Kernel_Image | Unified Kernel Image]].
[[Category:Documentation beats]]
=== Version ===
Fedora may include additional patches to the kernel for improvements, bug fixes, or additional features. For this reason, the Fedora kernel may not be line-for-line equivalent to the so-called ''vanilla kernel'' from the web site:
To obtain a list of these patches, download the source RPM package and run the following command against it:
<pre>rpm -qpl kernel-<version>.src.rpm</pre>
=== Changelog ===
To retrieve a log of changes to the package, run the following command:
<pre>rpm -q --changelog kernel-<version></pre>
If you need a user friendly version of the changelog, refer to A short and full diff of the kernel is available from The Fedora version kernel is based on the Linus tree.
Customizations made for the Fedora version are available from
=== Kernel Flavors ===
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Fedora {{Template:DocsDict/BeatsVer}} includes the following kernel builds:
* Native kernel, for use in most systems.  Configured sources are available in the <code>kernel-devel</code> package.
* The kernel-PAE, for use in 32-bit x86 systems with more than 4GB of RAM, or with CPUs that have a NX (No eXecute) feature.  This kernel support both uniprocessor and multi-processor systems.  Configured sources are available in the <code>kernel-PAE-devel</code> package.
* Virtualization kernel for use with the Xen emulator package. Configured sources are available in the <code>kernel-xen-devel</code> package.
You may install kernel headers for all four kernel flavors at the same time. The files are installed in the <code>/usr/src/kernels/<version>[-PAE|-xen|-kdump] -<arch>/</code> tree. Use the following command:
<pre>su -c 'yum install kernel{,-PAE,-xen,-kdump}-devel'</pre>
Select one or more of these flavors, separated by commas and no spaces, as appropriate.  Enter the root password when prompted.
{{Admon/note|x86 Kernel Includes Kdump|Both the x86_64 and the i686 kernels are relocatable, so they no longer require a separate kernel for kdump capability. PPC64 still requires a separate kdump kernel.}}
{{Admon/note|Default Kernel Provides SMP|There is no separate SMP kernel available for Fedora on i386, x86_64, and ppc64.  Multiprocessor support is provided by the native kernel.}}
{{Admon/note|PowerPC Kernel Support|There is no support for Xen or kdump for the PowerPC architecture in Fedora. 32-bit PowerPC does still have a separate SMP kernel.}}
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=== Preparing for Kernel Development ===
Fedora {{Template:DocsDict/BeatsVer}} does not include the kernel-source package provided by older versions since only the kernel-devel package is required now to build external modules. Configured sources are available, as described [[#Kernel_Flavors | above]].
{{Admon/important|Custom Kernel Building|For information on kernel development and working with custom kernels, refer to}}
=== Reporting Bugs ===
Refer to for information on reporting bugs in the Linux kernel.  You may also use for reporting bugs that are specific to Fedora.

Latest revision as of 01:33, 20 September 2016

DocsProject Header docTeam1.png

Beat Closed on Wiki
Work on beats has now moved to git at If you have changes or additions, please contact the docs team via #fedora-docs,, or with the release-notes BZ component.