From Fedora Project Wiki
(Put a note on srpms in base rhel also into "Packaging Parallel python3X stacks")
(Bunch of changes - note that %with_python3_other is controlled in the buildroot, differentiate between libraries and applications, provide more detailed guidelines)
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==== Specfiles, Macros, Packaging Process ====
 
==== Specfiles, Macros, Packaging Process ====
  
An example specfile follows:
+
{{admon/note|Libraries vs. Applications|For purposes of the following text, ''libraries'' are "python-<name>" packages - Python extension modules that are built for every interpreter and are imported by other ''libraries'' or ''applications''. ''Libraries'' specfiles should allow building subpackages for both "python3" and "python3_other". ''Applications'' are packages that provide "end user functionality" and it only makes sense to build them for one Python runtime}}
 +
 
 +
An example specfile of a ''library'' follows follows:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
# note: macros %%python3_pkgversion and %%python3_other_pkgversion are defined by macrofile from package
+
# note: macros %%python3_pkgversion, %%python3_other_pkgversion and %%with_python3_other are defined by
python3-pkgversion-macros that is present in minimal buildroot; %%python3_pkgversion is also available
+
macrofile from package python3-pkgversion-macros that is present in minimal buildroot;
#  on Fedora, so it's possible to have a common specfile for EPEL and Fedora
+
%%python3_pkgversion is also available in Fedora, so it's possible to have a common
 +
specfile for EPEL and Fedora
 
%global with_python3 1
 
%global with_python3 1
# this is only turned on during transitional periods
 
%global with_python3_other 0
 
  
 
Name:          python-X
 
Name:          python-X
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</pre>
 
</pre>
  
===== Explanation =====
+
Note, that ''application'' specfile would be adapted from Fedora only by changing Requires/BuildRequires/... to use<code>%{python3_pkgversion}</code>.
 +
 
 +
===== Guidelines =====
  
 
For start, packagers are able to merge specfile from Fedora and use it - all macros like <code>%__python3</code> or <code>%python3_sitelib</code> are provided by the current python3X-devel. It's even be possible to use the same specfile for Fedora and EPEL with minimal effort.
 
For start, packagers are able to merge specfile from Fedora and use it - all macros like <code>%__python3</code> or <code>%python3_sitelib</code> are provided by the current python3X-devel. It's even be possible to use the same specfile for Fedora and EPEL with minimal effort.
  
* do initial Fedora import
+
The process of importing a specfile from Fedora to EPEL follows:
 +
 
 +
* Do initial Fedora import.
  
 
{{admon/warning|Packages already in RHEL|Some packages imported from Fedora, for example python-setuptools, would have same SRPM name (possibly different version) as packages in base RHEL. Since SRPM names must not conflict, it is necessary to create python3-<name> package for these (assuming it doesn't exist yet in Fedora), do a new package review and build it just for EPEL (the package will likely have python3- subpackage already in Fedora built from python-<name>).}}
 
{{admon/warning|Packages already in RHEL|Some packages imported from Fedora, for example python-setuptools, would have same SRPM name (possibly different version) as packages in base RHEL. Since SRPM names must not conflict, it is necessary to create python3-<name> package for these (assuming it doesn't exist yet in Fedora), do a new package review and build it just for EPEL (the package will likely have python3- subpackage already in Fedora built from python-<name>).}}
  
* change Fedora's <code>python3-X</code> subpackage name to <code>python%{python3_pkgversion}-X</code>, change BuildRequires and Requires in the same way for this subpackage
+
* Change Fedora's <code>python3-X</code> subpackage name to <code>python%{python3_pkgversion}-X</code>, change BuildRequires and Requires in the same way for this subpackage.
* add <code>%with_python3_other</code> macro
+
* Add definition and %prep, %build and %install (and %check) steps of <code>python%{python3_other_pkgversion}-X</code> subpackage. which looks exactly the same as <code>python%{python3_pkgversion}-X</code> subpackage, it just uses different macros; build of this subpackage has to be conditionalized by the <code>%with_python3_other</code> macro, which is defined in the minimal buildroot.
* add definition and %prep, %build and %install (and %check) steps of <code>python%{python3_other_pkgversion}-X</code> subpackage. which looks exactly the same as <code>python%{python3_pkgversion}-X</code> subpackage, it just uses different macros; build of this subpackage has to be conditionalized by the <code>%with_python3_other</code> macro
+
* Make sure that all hashbangs in resulting package are in form "#!/usr/bin/python3.X". Macros <code>%{__python3}</code> and <code>%{__python3_other}</code> in EPEL have these values, so if you invoke <code>%{__python3} setup.py <action></code>, the entry points will automatically be set correctly. You must replace any upstream hardcoded hashbangs during build by using sed or other means.
 
* TODO: provide the macro names and definitions here
 
* TODO: provide the macro names and definitions here
  
 
Lifecycle of python3X stacks, rebuilding:
 
Lifecycle of python3X stacks, rebuilding:
* during periods when only a single Python 3 runtime is in EPEL, packages must be built with <code>%with_python3</code> enabled and with <code>%with_python3_other</code> disabled
+
* during periods when only a single Python 3 runtime is in EPEL, packages must be built with <code>%with_python3</code> enabled (<code>%with_python3_other</code> is disabled in minimal buildroot)
 
* when a new python3X+1 is built in EPEL - let's say that there is python34 and python35 has just been introduced:
 
* when a new python3X+1 is built in EPEL - let's say that there is python34 and python35 has just been introduced:
** (this can probably be scripted?) <code>%with_python3_other</code> is enabled in all packages, <code>%python3_pkgversion</code> is still set to 34, <code>%python3_other_pkgversion</code> is still set to 35
+
** <code>%with_python3_other</code> is enabled in minimal buildroot, <code>%python3_pkgversion</code> is still set to 34, <code>%python3_other_pkgversion</code> is still set to 35
 
** (scripted) mass rebuild is run to build as much of the new stack possible automatically
 
** (scripted) mass rebuild is run to build as much of the new stack possible automatically
 +
** all ''libraries'' should be rebuilt to provide python35-<name> subpackages
 
** at a certain point at time, annoucement is made that python34 is to be retired and python35 is to be *the* one - at this point, python34 and python35 are rebuilt
 
** at a certain point at time, annoucement is made that python34 is to be retired and python35 is to be *the* one - at this point, python34 and python35 are rebuilt
 
*** python34-devel now provides the "other" macros, while python35 provides the "default" macros (note that all the specfiles still build just fine as they are)
 
*** python34-devel now provides the "other" macros, while python35 provides the "default" macros (note that all the specfiles still build just fine as they are)
** (this can probably be scripted?) <code>%with_python3_other</code> is disabled in all packages
+
** all ''applications'' should be rebuilt to depend on python35 instead of python34
 +
** <code>%with_python3_other</code> is disabled in minimal buildroot
 
** <code>%python3_pkgversion</code> is set to "35", <code>%python3_other_pkgversion</code> is set to "36"
 
** <code>%python3_pkgversion</code> is set to "35", <code>%python3_other_pkgversion</code> is set to "36"
** no rebuild is needed at this point, but all packages build just python35-X subpackages
+
** no rebuild is needed at this point, but all packages build just python35-<name> subpackages
 
** now the whole python34 stack can be retired (TODO: how?)
 
** now the whole python34 stack can be retired (TODO: how?)
  
 
[1] http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Changes/Python_3_as_Default
 
[1] http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Changes/Python_3_as_Default
 
[2] https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/EPEL/GuidelinesAndPolicies#A_major_version_update
 
[2] https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/EPEL/GuidelinesAndPolicies#A_major_version_update

Revision as of 13:29, 3 March 2015

EPEL 7 in Python 3 Plan Draft

Why Python 3 in EPEL 7, Why not SCLs

Due to Fedora plans for migration to Python 3 [1], it is becoming necessary to have Python 3 accessible in some form in EPEL 7. This will allow upstream projects to move to Python 3 (dropping Python 2 support) and still be usable through EPEL repositories. Some key stakeholders in this regard are Fedora Infra and DNF.

Another important reason is further promotion of Python 3 and raising awareness for enterprise-level Python users.

Because of key stakeholders like Fedora Infra and DNF, SCLs as a solution to this problem were ruled out. SCLs are currently not allowed in EPEL (and it seems they won't be allowed in near future) and since these projects need/strongly prefer to be in EPEL itself, SCLs are not a viable alternative for them.

Some Facts

  • Python 3 is actively developed by upstream and new minor versions are released approximately every year. Latest Python 3 minor is 3.4.
  • Python minor versions are not ABI compatible, rebuilds are needed (both because of libpython soname change and because of bytecode magic numbers).
  • Python has a good support for parallel installable stacks, even for minor versions of one major version (e.g. 3.3 and 3.4 can easily be installable alongside).
  • EPEL policies try to discourage updates that break ABI and require rebuilds of other packages - due to the above fact, I consider Python minor version update a "major version update" as specified in EPEL update guidelines [2]. And as the guidelines say, this should be avoided if at all possible.

Proposal

  • Python 3 is packaged as python3X parallel-installable package (X is minor version, e.g. "4" ATM) that can coexist with other parallel installable python3Y stacks.
  • One of these stacks is always considered the "default" in the sense that it owns /usr/bin/python3.
  • All binary RPMs of extension packages must be named python3X-foo. They must follow Fedora's python3 packaging guidelines with the exception that name contains both major and minor Python version (in Fedora it's only major). See below for packaging instructions.
  • Most of the time, there is only one python3X stack in EPEL. During transitional periods, after 3X+1 is released, there are two.
  • In a situation when python3X is in EPEL and 3.X+1 is released upstream, the following happens:
    • python3X+1 package is created for EPEL ASAP and all extension packages are built also for this new python3X+1 stack.
    • When all packages are rebuilt for python3X+1, the old python3X stack is retired after certain period. This period gives everyone enough time to rebuild their packages while being as short as possible. There is intentionally no hard limit here, we will approach this case by case.
    • "/usr/bin/python3" belongs to the "stable" python3X stack. Switching /usr/bin/python3 from python3X to python3X+1 happens shortly before the end of transitional period (== before obsoleting python3X) and it is announced on epel-devel.
    • Usage of "/usr/bin/python3" is discouraged in favour of using /usr/bin/python3.X explicitly.

Packaging Parallel python3X stacks

  • Automatic dependency generators and bytecompilation hooks work fine.
  • RPM naming:
    • As mentioned above, binary RPMs are named python3X for Python itself and python3X-<name> for extension packages.
  • SRPM naming, dist-git:
    • We're using Fedora-like dist-git repos:
      • If a python3-<name> Fedora repo exists, it must be used. If a python-<name> SRPM exists in base RHEL, python3-<name> must be created and used (see #Explanation).
      • Otherwise if python-<name> Fedora repo exists, it must be used.
      • Otherwise the package doesn't exist in Fedora and packager should decide before review which of the above he'll choose to have created, according to Fedora Python Packaging Guidelines.
    • SRPM names are same as dist-git repo names. This means that we can have python-<name> dist-git repo and python-<name> SRPM which produces just python34-<name> RPM, while not producing python-<name> RPM.

Specfiles, Macros, Packaging Process

Note.png
Libraries vs. Applications
For purposes of the following text, libraries are "python-<name>" packages - Python extension modules that are built for every interpreter and are imported by other libraries or applications. Libraries specfiles should allow building subpackages for both "python3" and "python3_other". Applications are packages that provide "end user functionality" and it only makes sense to build them for one Python runtime

An example specfile of a library follows follows:

# note: macros %%python3_pkgversion, %%python3_other_pkgversion and %%with_python3_other are defined by
#  macrofile from package python3-pkgversion-macros that is present in minimal buildroot;
#  %%python3_pkgversion is also available in Fedora, so it's possible to have a common
#  specfile for EPEL and Fedora
%global with_python3 1

Name:           python-X
Version:        1
Release:        1%{?dist}
Summary:        X
Source:         X

License:        MIT
URL:            http://X
%if 0%{?with_python3}
# BR: python%{python3_pkgversion}-devel
# and other BR
%endif

%if 0%{?with_python3_other}
# BR: python%{python3_other_pkgversion}-devel
# and other BR
%endif

%description
X.

%if 0%{?with_python3}
%package -n python%{python3_pkgversion}-X
Summary: python%{python3_pkgversion} build of X

%description -n python%{python3_pkgversion}-X
python%{python3_pkgversion} build of X.
%endif

%if 0%{?with_python3_other}
%package -n python%{python3_other_pkgversion}-X
Summary: python%{python3_other_pkgversion} build of X

%description -n python%{python3_other_pkgversion}-X
python%{python3_other_pkgversion} build of X.
%endif

%prep
%setup -q -n X-%{version}

%if 0%{?with_python3}
# do what you do for Fedora's Python 3 stack
%endif

%if 0%{?with_python3_other}
# do the same as above, just with pytohn3_other macro set
%endif

%build
# do it like in Fedora, add with_python3_other

%install
# do it like in Fedora, add with_python3_other

%if 0%{?with_python3}
%files -n python%{python3_pkgversion}-X
%endif

%if 0%{?with_python3_other}
%files -n python%{python3_other_pkgversion}-X
%endif

%changelog

Note, that application specfile would be adapted from Fedora only by changing Requires/BuildRequires/... to use%{python3_pkgversion}.

Guidelines

For start, packagers are able to merge specfile from Fedora and use it - all macros like %__python3 or %python3_sitelib are provided by the current python3X-devel. It's even be possible to use the same specfile for Fedora and EPEL with minimal effort.

The process of importing a specfile from Fedora to EPEL follows:

  • Do initial Fedora import.
Warning.png
Packages already in RHEL
Some packages imported from Fedora, for example python-setuptools, would have same SRPM name (possibly different version) as packages in base RHEL. Since SRPM names must not conflict, it is necessary to create python3-<name> package for these (assuming it doesn't exist yet in Fedora), do a new package review and build it just for EPEL (the package will likely have python3- subpackage already in Fedora built from python-<name>).
  • Change Fedora's python3-X subpackage name to python%{python3_pkgversion}-X, change BuildRequires and Requires in the same way for this subpackage.
  • Add definition and %prep, %build and %install (and %check) steps of python%{python3_other_pkgversion}-X subpackage. which looks exactly the same as python%{python3_pkgversion}-X subpackage, it just uses different macros; build of this subpackage has to be conditionalized by the %with_python3_other macro, which is defined in the minimal buildroot.
  • Make sure that all hashbangs in resulting package are in form "#!/usr/bin/python3.X". Macros %{__python3} and %{__python3_other} in EPEL have these values, so if you invoke %{__python3} setup.py <action>, the entry points will automatically be set correctly. You must replace any upstream hardcoded hashbangs during build by using sed or other means.
  • TODO: provide the macro names and definitions here

Lifecycle of python3X stacks, rebuilding:

  • during periods when only a single Python 3 runtime is in EPEL, packages must be built with %with_python3 enabled (%with_python3_other is disabled in minimal buildroot)
  • when a new python3X+1 is built in EPEL - let's say that there is python34 and python35 has just been introduced:
    • %with_python3_other is enabled in minimal buildroot, %python3_pkgversion is still set to 34, %python3_other_pkgversion is still set to 35
    • (scripted) mass rebuild is run to build as much of the new stack possible automatically
    • all libraries should be rebuilt to provide python35-<name> subpackages
    • at a certain point at time, annoucement is made that python34 is to be retired and python35 is to be *the* one - at this point, python34 and python35 are rebuilt
      • python34-devel now provides the "other" macros, while python35 provides the "default" macros (note that all the specfiles still build just fine as they are)
    • all applications should be rebuilt to depend on python35 instead of python34
    • %with_python3_other is disabled in minimal buildroot
    • %python3_pkgversion is set to "35", %python3_other_pkgversion is set to "36"
    • no rebuild is needed at this point, but all packages build just python35-<name> subpackages
    • now the whole python34 stack can be retired (TODO: how?)

[1] http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Changes/Python_3_as_Default [2] https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/EPEL/GuidelinesAndPolicies#A_major_version_update