Fedora users and contributors frequently ask others in the community why certain items are not included in Fedora. This page is meant to provide some explanations for the most frequently requested exclusions.
- If it is proprietary, it cannot be included in Fedora. (Binary firmware is the only exception to this)
- If it is legally encumbered, it cannot be included in Fedora.
- If it violates United States laws (specifically, Federal or applicable state laws), it cannot be included in Fedora.
Third party repositories often have more liberal licensing policies and contain software that has been excluded from the official Fedora software repository for various reasons. You can also find community support via Ask Fedora and use a search engine like Google to look for additional help. The proprietary software and drivers discussed may be available from the respective owners and other vendors. Fedora Project instead highly recommends that you support the right vendors and get hardware that can work with completely free and open source software and not restricted by Software Patents and other legal encumbrances.
- 1 Adobe/Macromedia Flash Player
- 2 Proprietary Kernel Drivers
- 3 NVIDIA Proprietary Graphics Drivers
- 4 ATI Catalyst Proprietary Graphics Drivers
- 5 NDISwrapper network driver
- 6 Real Media (and Player)
- 7 Encrypted DVD Playback
- 8 Cryptography
- 9 Oracle's Java
- 10 VMware
- 11 Adobe Acrobat Reader
- 12 szip
- 13 Moonlight
- 14 TrueCrypt
- 15 cdrtools
- 16 exfat
- 17 SIG blacklists
Adobe/Macromedia Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player is proprietary software. Fedora does not include proprietary software. If you still need to install Adobe Flash, we have Flash installation instructions.
Proprietary Kernel Drivers
Proprietary drivers are not included in Fedora. Many kernel developers consider such drivers as violation of the GPL license of the kernel. Fedora does not include proprietary software.
NVIDIA Proprietary Graphics Drivers
The NVIDIA graphics drivers are proprietary, and many kernel developers consider this driver to violate the GPL license of the kernel. Fedora does not include proprietary software.
Fedora Suggests: Consider using the free and open source Nouveau driver instead or use a graphics adapter from Intel or AMD or any other manufacturer that provides full specifications and/or source code.
ATI Catalyst Proprietary Graphics Drivers
The ATI Catalyst graphics drivers are proprietary and many kernel developers consider this driver to violate the GPL license of the kernel. Fedora does not include proprietary software. Fedora does include the free and open source Radeon driver however.
Fedora Suggests: Consider using the free and open source Radeon driver instead.
NDISwrapper network driver
NDISwrapper works by bridging Windows drivers into kernel space; many kernel developers consider this to violate the GPL license of the kernel. Furthermore, NDISwrapper does not work with standard kernel features, such as 4K stacks, and exposes the user to binary-only drivers in kernel space that the user cannot modify or fix. Furthermore, NDISwrapper does not work at all without the Windows drivers, which 1) are not redistributable, and therefore cannot be shipped in Fedora, and 2) are not open source, and therefore will not be shipped in Fedora.
Fedora Suggests: Try using the in-kernel drivers that support many common wireless cards, such as Intel or Broadcom wireless adapters.
Real Media (and Player)
Real Media encoding and decoding support is not included in any Fedora application because it is heavily patented in several regions including the United States. The patent holder is unwilling to give an unrestricted patent grant, as required by the GPL. Other platforms might have paid the royalty, or included proprietary software. Other Linux distributions not based in a region affected by the patent might ship Real Media decoders and encoders. However, Fedora cannot and does not ship Real Media decoders and encoders in order to serve the goal of providing and supporting only free and open source software by default.
Fedora Suggests: Try using patent unrestricted formats such as WebM (a lossy format for video and audio), Ogg Vorbis (a lossy audio codec), Ogg Theora (a lossy video codec), or FLAC (a lossless audio codec)
Encrypted DVD Playback
Playback of CSS encrypted DVDs may be a violation of the United States DMCA , because it may be considered circumventing a copyright protection mechanism.
Fedora Suggests: Using patent unrestricted formats such as WebM or Ogg Theora is highly recommended when encoding videos.
Some cryptographic packages are not included within Fedora due to US export restrictions and patent concerns.
Fedora Suggests: Consider using non-restricted cryptographic methods instead.
Java is now under a free software license but still has some binary encumbrances which are being removed or replaced incrementally. Red Hat worked with Oracle to improve free and open source Java. Fedora 9 and above includes OpenJDK with encumbered portions replaced by the IcedTea Project and it is fully TCK compliant. Refer to the JavaFAQ for more details.
Although some VMware utilities such as open-vm-tools are free and open source, most VMware software is proprietary software. Fedora does not include proprietary software. Fedora includes and develops several virtualization technologies which can serve as an alternative.
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Adobe Acrobat Reader is proprietary software. Fedora does not include proprietary software.
Fedora Suggests: Consider using open source alternatives instead. Alternative PDF (Acrobat file format) readers are provided for the GNOME desktop (
evince, developed and maintained by Fedora developers), the KDE Plasma desktop (
okular), and for generic X-Window graphical interfaces (
The szip license is too restrictive for inclusion in Fedora.
Fedora Suggests: Use libaec, which includes a BSD drop-in replacement for the SZIP or other open source alternatives such as gzip, bzip2 and lzma formats.
Moonlight is currently a abandoned project. Even otherwise, there are serious concerns about Moonlight, due to Microsoft and Novell's public statements around its inclusion in their "covenant". In addition to that Groklaw has posted a FAQ from Software Freedom Law Center (SFLC) on the issues with this patent "covenant". Accordingly, this technology (with, or without codecs), is considered too risky, and is not acceptable for inclusion in Fedora.
Microsoft later extended the patent "covenant" in a limited form to end users but not for redistribution and hence distributors other than Novell are still excluded.
The TrueCrypt software is under a poor license, which is not only non-free, but has the potential to be actively dangerous to end users or distributors who agree to it, opening them to possible legal action even if they abide by all of the licensing terms, depending on the intent of the upstream copyright holder. Fedora continues to make efforts to try to work with the TrueCrypt upstream to fix all of the issues in their license so that it can be considered Free, but have not yet been successful.
Fedora Suggests: cryptsetup allows to map existing Truecrypt device since version 1.6 (Fedora 18). For full functionality zuluCrypt is an independently developed TrueCrypt-compatible program under the GNU General Public License. ZuluCrypt which is available in Fedora repositories.
At one point in time cdrtools was entirely licensed under the terms of the GPL (and included in Red Hat Linux, the precursor to Fedora), but later, most of the codebase was relicensed to CDDL (but notably, not all of it), resulting in a codebase which is an incompatible mix of the GPL and the CDDL. The cdrtools upstream is aware of these concerns, but holds a set of unorthodox opinions on licensing which are not shared by the FSF or Red Hat Legal, so it is unlikely that this situation will ever be resolved in a fashion that would result in cdrtools being acceptable for Fedora. For more details, see:
Fedora Suggests: Use cdrkit (fork of cdrtools before the licensing issues) instead.
Implementations of exfat are currently patent-encumbered, thus not permitted in Fedora.
Fedora Suggests: Consider using alternative file systems instead of exfat.